|Publisher||Commission on Revenue Allocation (CRA)|
|Year of Publication|
|Category||Papers and Articles|
|Description||Marginalisation is a consequence of a skewed process ofthe distribution of scarce resources;
it has been interpreted as a process of social exclusion from the dominant socio-economic, cultural and
political structure. The Constitution of Kenya 2010 defines marginalised communities as one or more of
a) Acommunity that,becauseofits relatively smallpopulationorfor anyotherreason,hasbeen
unable to fully participate in the integrated social and economic life of Kenya as a whole.
assimilation,has remainedoutsidetheintegratedsocial andeconomic lifeofKenya as awhole.
c) An indigenous community that has retained and maintained a traditional lifestyle and livelihood
based on a hunter or gatherer economy; or pastoral persons and communities, whether
(i.) nomadic or
(ii.) a settled community that, because of its relative geographic isolation, has experienced
only marginal participation in the integrated social and economic life of
Kenya as a whole.
Kenya is characterised by marginalisation and inequality, exacerbated by the high level standards
of living and insecurity. The constitution addresses the issue on marginalisation through affirmative
action programmes and policies that are designed to redress any disadvantage suffered by individuals
or groups because of past discrimination.
Various methods have been suggested as to how to determine marginalised areas and
communities. Suggested methods of measuring regional disparities have provoked much debate.
Disparity is a multifaceted concept encompassing dimensions such as convergence, inequality and
polarisation. Infactthere are somanydisparity indicators that, evenwhenanalysinga specificdimension,
itisnot aneasy task tochoose amongthem. This being the case, the best practice usually involves the
use of different indicators to measure the same dimension: if all indicators point to the same direction
one can be fairly sure thatthe results are robust.
The constitution states that public participation is desirable in any key decision making that
touchesonpolicy issues. Thus,toidentifymarginalisedareas theCRAundertook a surveyovertwoweeks
in June 2012, to seek public opinion regarding the criteria to be used when identifying marginalised
areas in Kenya. The survey was conducted in all 47 counties and views were collected from individuals
and groups representing many sectors of society. The survey was intended to assess the level of understandingofthe
termmarginalisationas far as itrelates toKenya, andthe criteria that citizenswouldprefer
touse toidentifymarginalisedcounties. The respondentsproposedspecificparameters tobeusedinthe
identification process and named some ofthe counties thatthey considered to be marginalised. In each
ofthe 47 counties, various areas within the counties were also mentioned as marginalised.
Source: Commission on Revenue Allocation, www.crakenya.org