|Publisher||Commission on Revenue Allocation (CRA)|
|Year of Publication|
|Category||Policies and Guidelines|
|Description||Marginalisation has persisted in some regions of Kenya thanks to
aspects of colonial legacy, historical injustices and the uneven allocation of
resources since independence. Sessional Paper No. 10 of 1965 was anchored
on a strategy of investing resources in high potential areas with high economic
returns to attain rapid economic growth. Though the sessional paper also called
for people-centred expenditure regimes that would uplift the provision of health
care and education in marginalised areas of Kenya, marginalisation has remained
malignant in some regions of the country, in spite of the 1965 policy declarations
In addition, marginalisation in Kenya has been caused by poor governance,
limited employment opportunities and general economic underdevelopment.
The nature, causes, constitutional references and impacts of marginalisation
in Kenya are used as background to generate policy options on the
prevention and alleviation of marginalisation in Kenya. County ranking is adopted
as the most objective tool to identify counties that are relatively marginalised.
The CRA is required, under Article 216(4) of the Constitution of Kenya
2010, to determine, publish and regularly review a policy setting out the criteria
by which to identify the marginalised areas in Kenya. The policy proposed herein
outlines actions to be undertaken and structures to be put in place to ensure that
the quality of life for people who are marginalised, or who live in marginalised
areas, is improved. The policy specifies areas that the government should target
to bring about sustainable and equitable growth in marginalised areas, without
compromising the level of services in the rest of the country.
In this paper, the county was used as the basic unit to assess marginalisation.
County Development Indices (CDIs) were determined for all the counties,
and the counties were ranked on the basis of their CDI. Counties with low CDI
were categorised as marginalised, relative to those counties with a higher CDI.
The CDI is a reliable measure of marginalisation since it exposes the relative ease
of accessing basic goods and services that are normally used in measuring the quality of life.
The principal socio-economic factors, variables and indices (such as
indices on poverty, access to water, education, energy and sanitation, life expectancy,
maternal health, disease burden, population demographics, etc.), used
in other jurisdictions to characterise marginalised areas and groups, have been
A process of computing the CDI was developed. Values of the various
indicators are first converted into the respective indices and percentage weight
values are allocated to each indicator and summed up to give CDI. The CDI was
used to rank the counties in three categories: most marginalised, moderately
marginalised and well off. The data used in determining the CDIs were sourced
from the Kenya National Bureau of Statistics (KNBS).
Source: Commission on Revenue Allocation, www.crakenya.org